Towards a Multimodel Approach for Simulation of Crowd Behaviour Under Fire and Toxic Gas Expansion in Buildings

This paper presents the concept and current development results of an interactive integrated simulation system for fire, smoke and pollutant gas spread in buildings in cases of fire, chemical, biological and radiological incidents and terrorist attacks developed in the German project iSiGG in the frames of the IKT 2020 funding initiative. The developed approach will combine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods with methods for numerical simulation of people flow based on a semantic multimodel that is capable to support non-stationary changes of the model status such as opening/closing of doors and windows, state changes in the HVAC and the fire protection systems, damages due to blasts or people actions, etc.

The development comprises the following tasks:

  • Development of a CFD simulation software specifically optimized for the targeted application domain of fire and toxic gas expansion in buildings;
  • Development of a crowd simulation tool with dedicated behaviour patterns for fire and hazardous context;
  • Coupling of CFD and people flow simulations to an integrated co-simulation using as baseline the Functional Mock-up approach;
  • Enabling continuous interaction of the simulations with the building model data, considering also the possible dynamic state changes of the latter in the progress of the simulation process;
  • Embedding the simulation system into a BIM based virtual 3D Lab for building design;
  • Development of an application program interface (API) for modular integration of the simulation services in a compute cloud environment for achievement of fast online response.

The CFD system is based on an existing software application for the simulation of fire in tunnels. It will be strongly extended by an open library of building materials including functions for material heat release rates, consideration of HVAC equipment, coupling of the mass transport and the Navier-Stokes equations, and combination of fire and smoke spread models with a radiological model.

The people flow simulation will be based on the multi-purpose agent simulation system AnyLogic, extended by a database for human behaviour patterns combining physical and psychological models and considering CFD and building element interactions.

The developed simulation system will be of benefit for a number of different actors in the construction process such as designers, facility managers, owners, security personnel, public authorities and insurances, especially with regard to the planning of safety measures, the evaluation of existing buildings and the development of training scenarios for rescue and security teams. The integrated multimodel BIM functionality will enable easy to use visual examination of evacuation plans and virtual team training thereby helping to improve the overall quality of the design process regarding high-rise buildings, shopping malls, railway stations and airport terminals.

System interaction: crowd modeling at disaster simulation model

System interaction: crowd modeling at disaster simulation model

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