The present study explores a simulation model combining system dynamics and discrete-event simulation for an electric vehicle charging system. For the representation of the charging demand, the model employs data from an actual facility for vehicle charging. While connected to the electrical grid, the system is augmented by a solar photovoltaic installation and stationary battery energy storage.
Multiple simulation runs were performed to analyze the considered energy system over a 1-year period and compare relevant output parameters for different system configurations and system locations. Results show that a solar photovoltaic installation can be effectively integrated. For the degree of self-sufficiency, high values of 87% can be achieved with combined solar photovoltaic and battery energy storage systems.
A simulation model was developed for an energy system comprised of energy demand for an EV charging facility with solar PV and stationary BES support. The charging demand is based on the real charging processes of a parking facility at the California Institute of Technology campus. The model was implemented in the simulation software AnyLogic by combining the simulation paradigms of system dynamics and discrete-event simulation. The model allows for different parameters to be set individually, enabling the exploration of different system and usage scenarios. The developed simulation tool can therefore be used for design decision support.
The results indicate that a solar PV system can effectively be integrated with the EV charging infrastructure. Since the electricity demand is largely during the daytime, most of the generated electricity from the solar PV system can be directly used for charging the vehicles. The stationary BES system improves the integration of the photovoltaic system by using excess generation to charge the BES, allowing energy to be used later when demand exceeds the solar PV generation. For the studied facility configurations, it is possible to reduce carbon emissions by over 80% by reducing grid imports.
Overview of the main model