Academic articles

Modeling General Motors and the North American Automobile Market


This article discusses General Motors’ North American Enterprise Model, a system dynamics model of the entire North American automobile market. The Enterprise Model takes a broad look across the corporation and its marketplace, combining internal activities such as engineering, manufacturing and marketing with external factors such as competition for consumer purchases in the new and used vehicle marketplaces. Eight groups of manufacturers compete monthly for a decade across eighteen vehicle segments, making segment-by-segment decisions about price, volume and investment.

From System Dynamics and Discrete Event to Practical Agent Based Modeling: Reasons, Techniques, Tools


This paper may be considered as a practical reference for those who wish to add (now sufficiently matured) Agent Based modeling to their analysis toolkit and may or may not have some System Dynamics or Discrete Event modeling background. We focus on systems that contain large numbers of active objects (people, business units, animals, vehicles, or even things like projects, stocks, products, etc. that have timing, event ordering or other kind of individual behavior associated with them). We compare the three major paradigms in simulation modeling: System Dynamics, Discrete Event and Agent Based Modeling with respect to how they approach such systems. We show in detail how an Agent Based model can be built from an existing System Dynamics or a Discrete Event model and then show how easily it can be further enhanced to capture much more complicated behavior, dependencies and interactions thus providing for deeper insight in the system being modeled.

Spatial Dynamics of Social Network Evolution


This paper explores the problem of fragmenting social networks enabled by spatial distancing between distinct socioeconomic classes. Such fragmentation is evidenced by the experience of urban sprawl without population growth. We develop a prototype model to examine the spatial dynamics of social network evolution in the face of neighborhood migration. This model draws upon the small world analogy by using an initial template of connections that are “rewired” over time. Spatially, connections are established for neighborhood proximity. Socially, connections are added based upon similarity of economic class.

A Spatio Temporal Simulation Model for Evaluating Delinquency and Crime Policies


System Dynamics, has been useful for a variety of disciplines; however, it has limitations in showing a geographical representation of the models under study. This paper proposes a methodology based on layered vectors which allows the use a city’s census information to feed a Geographic Information System (GIS). The GIS objects implemented into System Dynamics and located at coordinates X.Y.Z become the entry parameters for the simulation.

Hybrid simulation of renewable energy generation and storage grids


The share of renewable energy sources in energy production is growing steadily. Domestic homes can be equipped with solar panels, micro combined heat and power systems, batteries, and they can become adaptive consumers. They can also deliver energy to the grid and react to the energy supply. This paper presents a hybrid simulation approach for the analysis of a grid of domestic homes equipped with different technological options with respect to efficiency and costs. For energy storage and energy flows the system dynamics modeling paradigm is used whereas control decisions are modeled as statecharts. The highly intermittent solar irradiation and also the electric power and heat demands are implemented as stochastic models. The component-based design allows for quick creation of new case studies. As examples, different homes with batteries, micro combined heat and power systems, or energy carrier carbazole as energy storage are analyzed

Fully agent based modellings of epidemic spread using AnyLogic


The problem that we are going to conquer subsequently is a slight modification of the ARGESIM Comparison 17. This comparison does ask for the simulation of a SIR-type epidemic by means of lattice gas cellular automata (LGCA). At the end of this paper we will compare the outcome of such an approach with our ABS-result. The task is to model a SIR-type epidemic, an epidemic simplified in several ways. For example we assume a constant population over the whole simulation, thus no births or deaths...

Understanding retail productivity by simulating management practices


The retail sector has been identified as one of the biggest contributors to the productivity gap that persists between the UK, Europe and the USA. It is well documented that measures of UK retail productivity rank lower than those of countries with comparably developed economies. Intuitively, it seems likely that management practices are linked to a company’s productivity and performance. Significant research has been done to investigate the productivity gap and identify problems involved in estimating the size of the gap; for example the comparability of productivity indices, historical influences, general measurement issues, and varying sectoral contributions. Best practice guidelines have been developed and published, but there remains considerable inconsistency and uncertainty regarding how these are implemented and manifested at the level of the work place. Indeed, a recent report on UK productivity asserted that, “... the key to productivity remains what happens inside the firm and this is something of a ‘black box’”. Siebers and colleagues conducted a comprehensive literature review of this research area to assess linkages between management practices and firm level productivity. The authors concluded that management practices are multidimensional constructs that generally do not demonstrate a straightforward relationship with productivity variables. Empirical evidence affirms that management practices must be context specific to be effective, and in turn productivity indices must also reflect a particular organization’s activities on a local level to be a valid indicator of performance