Academic articles

Analysis of future UAS-based delivery


Commercial use of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) has the potential to reshape the delivery market and to open new business opportunities to small businesses, e.g., local stores, pharmacies, restaurants, as well as to large international and national businesses and government entities, e.g., Amazon, Google, UPS, power companies, and USPS. Simulation models can examine the value added to current business operations, the effects of radical shifts in current operations, and the formation of new types of businesses. This paper presents an envisioned future UAS delivery business operation models and develops a theoretical constructive simulation model. The conducted simulation analysis based on full factorial design estimated causalities between multiple independent and dependent business and policy factors e.g. drone velocity, flying altitude, number of drones, delivery demand, route type, maximum drone fly-time, number of orders completed, time average drone density, order time, drone utilization, and reachability of customers.

Hospital processes within an integrated system view: a hybrid simulation approach


Processes in hospitals or in other healthcare institutions are usually analyzed and optimized isolated for enclosed organizations like single hospital wards or certain clinical pathways. However, many workflows should be considered in a broader scope in order to better represent the reality, i.e., in combination with other processes and in contexts of macro structures. Therefore, an integrated view is necessary which enables to combine different coherences. This can be achieved by hybrid simulation. In this case, processes can be modeled and simulated by discrete simulation techniques (i.e., DES or ABS) at the meso-level. However, holistic structures can be comfortably implemented using continuous methods (i.e., SD). This paper presents a theoretical approach that enables to consider reciprocal influences between processes and higher level entities, but also to combine hospital workflows with other subjects (e.g., ambulance vehicles).

An agent-based framework to study occupant multi-comfort level in office buildings


With the trend towards energy efficient buildings that diminish fossil fuel usage and carbon emissions, achieving high energy performance became a necessity. Allowing occupants to be actively involved during the design and operation phases of buildings is vital in fulfilling this goal without jeopardizing occupant satisfaction. Although different occupant behavior types were considered in prior research efforts, recent tools did not however examine simultaneously visual, thermal and acoustic comfort levels. This paper presents work targeted at efficiently studying occupant multi-comfort level using agent-based modeling with the ultimate aim of reducing energy consumption within academic buildings. The proposed model was capable of testing different parameters and variables affecting occupant behavior. Several scenarios were examined and statistical results demonstrated that the presence of different occupant behavior types is deemed necessary for a more realistic overall model, and the absence of windows results in an acoustic satisfaction with a decrease in (HVAC) use.

Improving patient access to a public hospital complex using agent simulation


This paper uses agent based simulation to assess the effect of redesigning the points of access to a major public hospital complex in Chile, where nearly 15,000 people will pass through daily. The study is carried out by simulating pedestrian traffic in order to calculate density maps and service levels in hospital access and ramps. The simulation allows us to evaluate the flow of people and assess the layout performance, by identifying high patient flow areas and congested pedestrian traffic zones. By using this approach, it is possible to suggest changes to the original design and to improve pedestrian flow at hospital access points and ramps. The suggested changes reveal that pedestrian indicators could be improved, which in turn would improve the level of satisfaction of patients, relatives, and hospital personnel. A higher satisfaction level would help to reduce stress linked to hospital facilities and crowded spaces.

Building a Simulation Model to Characterize Interacting Workflows and to Explore New Workflow Alternatives


Sortie Generation Rate (SGR) is an important metric for air dominance. Lockheed Martin must demonstrate that the Air System can fly the sorties during an allotted time and deliver the capability to the war fighter. Aircraft turnaround time- the time between when the aircraft touches down, refuels, rearms, and completes inspections in order to release the aircraft, to aircraft wheels up - plays an important role in achieving the SGR requirement.

Towards a Guide to Domain-specific Hybrid Simulation


The advantages of combined simulation techniques have been already frequently discussed and are well-covered by the recently published literature. In particular, many case studies have been presented solving similar domain-specific problems by different multi-paradigm simulation approaches. Moreover, a number of papers exist focusing on theoretical and conceptual aspects of hybrid simulation. However, it still remains a challenge to decide, whether combined methods are appropriate in certain situations and how they can be applied. Therefore, domain-specific user guides for multi-paradigm modeling are required combining general concepts and best practices to common steps. In this paper, we particularly outline three major processes targeting to define structured hybrid approaches in domain-specific contexts, and we focus on some practical issues aiming to a sustainable model development. Finally, an example hybrid methodology for problems in healthcare will be presented.

Using Simulation to Assist Recruitment in Seasonally Dependant Contact Centers


The weather is unpredictable and can have a large impact on the profitability of seasonal businesses, particularly if staffing requirements are highly temperature-dependent. In this paper we describe our efforts in developing a what-if analysis tool to assist affected Small and Medium Enterprises in determining the best case scenario for timing hiring new staff and deciding the optimum length of temporary employment contracts.

Iterative Simulation and Optimization Approach for Job Shop Scheduling


In this paper, we present an iterative scheme integrating simulation with an optimization model, for solving complex problems, viz., job shop scheduling. The classical job shop scheduling problem which is NP-Hard, has often been modelled as Mixed-Integer Programming (MIP) model and solved using exact algorithms (for example, branch-and-bound and branch-and-cut) or using meta-heuristics (for example, Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization and Simulated Annealing).

Discrete Event Simulation Model of Asphalt Paving Operations


Although research into simulation of construction continues to advance and thrive in the academic world, application of simulation in the construction industry remains limited. Stakeholders on construction projects have yet to adopt simulation as their default tool of choice for managing large complex projects, instead of traditional techniques, which are often inadequate. This paper describes the building of an asphalt paving simulator, as an example of the rigor and effort required in developing construction simulation models, and then briefly describes an alternative model building method currently being researched which may potentially make it easier and faster for stakeholders to quickly build construction simulation models.

Prospective Healthcare Decision-Making By Combined System Dynamics, Discrete-Event And Agent-Based Simulation


Prospective Health Technology Assessment allows early decision making for innovative health care technologies. In our recent publications a hybrid simulation approach with System Dynamics and Agent-Based Modeling has been presented. This paper presents a mechanism to generate agents dynamically from SD models and extends the previously presented hybrid approach by process-oriented Discrete Event Simulation for hospital modeling.