Academic articles

Higher Production Plan Realization Through Dynamic Simulation

Production plans are based on fair assumptions of process performance and all operation parameters are taken as averages. There are a number of events that happen in any manufacturing setup during the course of production like periodic delivery of raw materials or changeovers on a machine. The interaction between these events is non-linear and cannot be easily visualized. As a result of which most of the production plans in any company have only a limited realization. This paper provides an example of how simulation using AnyLogic has been applied in one such plant scenario to visualize the plan outcome.

Towards Circular Economy Implementation in Manufacturing Systems Using A Multi-Method Simulation Approach to Link Design and Business Strategy

The recent circular economy movement has raised awareness and interest about untapped environmental and economic potential in the manufacturing industry. One of the crucial aspects in the implementation of circular or closedloop manufacturing approach is the design of circular products. While it is obvious that three post-use strategies, i.e., reuse, remanufacturing, and recycling, are highly relevant to achieve loop closure, it is enormously challenging to choose “the right” strategy (if at all) during the early design stage and especially at the single component level. One reason is that economic and environmental impacts of adapting these strategies are not explicit as they vary depending on the chosen business model and associated supply chains. In this scenario, decision support is essential to motivate adaptation of regenerative design strategies. The main purpose of this paper is to provide reliable decision support at the intersection of multiple lifecycle design and business models in the circular economy context to identify effects on cost.

Framework for standardization of simulation integrated production planning

Production planning is a complex problem that is typically decomposed into decisions carried out at different control levels. The various methods used for production planning often assume a static environment, therefore, the plans developed may not be feasible when shop floor events change dynamically. In such an operating environment, a system simulation model updated with real-time data can be used to validate a proposed plan. In this paper, we propose a framework to evaluate and validate the feasibility of high-level production plans using a simulation model at a lower level thereby providing a base for improving the upper level plan. The idea is demonstrated with an assembly plant where the aggregate plan is evaluated using discrete event simulation (DES) of shop floor operations with resources allocated according to constraints imposed by the aggregate plan. We also discuss standardized integration interfaces required between simulations and production planning tools.

Standards based generation of a virtual factory model

Developing manufacturing simulation models usually requires experts with knowledge of multiple areas including manufacturing, modeling, and simulation software. The expertise requirements increase for virtual factory models that include representations of manufacturing at multiple resolution levels. This paper reports on an initial effort to automatically generate virtual factory models using manufacturing configuration data in standard formats as the primary input. The execution of the virtual factory generates time series data in standard formats mimicking a real factory. Steps are described for auto-generation of model components in a software environment primarily oriented for model development via a graphic user interface. Advantages and limitations of the approach and the software environment used are discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of challenges in verification and validation of the virtual factory prototype model with its multiple hierarchical models and future directions.

A Hybrid System Dynamics-Discrete Event Simulation Approach to Simulating the Manufacturing Enterprise

With the advances in the information and computing technologies, the ways the manufacturing enterprise systems are being managed are changing. More integration and adoption of the system perspective push further towards a more flattened enterprise. This, in addition to the varying levels of aggregation and details and the presence of the continuous and discrete types of behavior, created serious challenges for the use of the existing simulation tools for simulating the modern manufacturing enterprise system. The commonly used discrete event simulation (DES) techniques face difficulties in modeling such integrated systems due to increased model complexity, the lack of data at the aggregate management levels, and the unsuitability of DES to model the financial sectors of the enterprise. System dynamics (SD) has been effective in providing the needs of top management levels but unsuccessful in offering the needed granularity at the detailed operational levels of the manufacturing system. On the other hand the existing hybrid continuous-discrete tools are based on certain assumptions that do not fit the requirements of the common decision making situations in the business systems.

Simulation Model to Control Risk Levels on Process Equipment Through Metrology in Semiconductor Manufacturing

This paper first presents a simulation model implemented to study a specific workcenter in semiconductor manufacturing facilities (fabs) with the objective of controlling the risk on process equipment. The different components of the model, its inputs and its outputs, that led us to propose improvements in the workcenter, are explained. The risk evaluated in this study is the exposure level in the number of wafers on a process tool since the latest control performed for this tool, based on an indicator called Wafer at Risk. Our analysis shows that measures should be better managed to avoid lack of control and that an appropriate qualification strategy is required.

Towards a Virtual Factory Prototype

A virtual factory should represent most of the features and operations of the corresponding real factory. Some of the key features of the virtual factory include the ability to assess performance at multiple resolutions and generate analytics data similar to that possible in a real factory. One should be able to look at the overall factory performance and be able to drill down to a machine and analyze its performance. It will require a large amount of effort and expertise to build such a virtual factory. This paper describes an effort to build a multiple resolution model of a manufacturing cell. The model provides the ability to study the performance at the cell level or at the machine level. The benefits and limitations of the presented approach and future research directions are also described.

Hybrid Simulation of Production Process of Pupunha Palm

This work simulated some alternatives of dynamic allocation of additional human resources in a company that produces various products from Pupunha palm. Its goal was to increase the average amount of trays produced per day in this line through a hybrid application of discrete event and agent-based simulation. Two different decision-making forms were proposed to find out which workstation should have received an additional operator. The first proposal was made on the level of occupancy of the operators, while the second one was made on the queue size. The computational model was operationally validated by comparing its results with the actual production data of the company.

Linking Symbiotic Simulation to Enterprise Systems: Framework and Applications

Symbiotic simulation is a paradigm that emphasizes a close association between a simulation system and a physical system, which is usually beneficial to at least one of them and not necessarily detrimental to the others. Aimed at extending previous work in symbiotic simulation, this paper proposes a framework of symbiotic simulation that can be used to improve the performance of a production system controlled by an enterprise system.

Particle Filtering Using Agent-based Transmission Models

Dynamic models are used to describe the spatio-temporal evolution of complex systems. It is frequently difficult to construct a useful model, especially for emerging situations such as the 2003 SARS outbreak.Here we describe the application of a modern predictor-corrector method – particle filtering – that could enable relatively quick model construction and support on-the-fly correction as empirical data arrives.

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