Academic articles

IRS Post-Filing Processes Simulation Modeling: A Comparison of DES with Econometric Microsimulation in Tax Administration


IRS Office of Research Headquarters measures and models taxpayer burden, defined as expenditures of time and money by taxpayers to comply with the federal tax system. In this research activity, IRS created two microsimulation models using econometric techniques to enable the Service to produce annual estimates of taxpayer compliance burden for individual and small business populations. Additionally, a Discrete Event Simulation (DES) model was developed to represent taxpayer activities and IRS administration in postfiling processes.

Java Engine for UML Based Hybrid State Machines


One of the approaches to modeling hybrid systems is to assign algebraic-differential equations describing the continuous behavior to states of state machines that represent discrete logic. The resulting hybrid state machine is a powerful concept to specify complex interdependencies between discrete and continuous time behaviors. It, however, exposes the simulation engine to a number of problems, which we discuss. The hybrid state machine based approach presented in this paper is fully supported by UML-RT/Java tool TimeBroker developed at Experimental Object Technologies.

Modeling S-Class Car Seat Control with AnyLogic — Daimler-Chrysler Modeling Contest


In this paper we give an overview of the car seat model that was developed for Daimler-Chrysler modeling contest in year 2001 and was awarded the 1st prize. We outline the OO UML-RT based modeling approach that was used and the simulation tool AnyLogic that supports it, and discuss their main advantages with respect to automotive area.

Distributed simulation of hybrid systems with AnyLogic and HLA


A large class of systems being developed has both continuous time and discrete time behavior. In fact, any system that interacts with physical world falls in that class. Chemical, Automotive, Military, Aerospace are areas most frequently mentioned in this respect. To model such systems successfully and to get accurate and reliable results from simulation experiments one needs an executable language naturally describing hybrid behavior, and a simulation engine capable of simulating discrete events interleaved with continuous time processes. Additional problems arise with simulating hybrid systems in a distributed environment.

Decision Support Tool — Supply Chain


We present a currently developed Decision Support Tool - Supply Chain (DST-SC). This is specialized domain oriented tool, which is an extension of the general purpose, UML-RT Hybrid Simulation kernel of AnyLogic by XJ Technologies. DST-SC allows high degree of flexibility with respect to the supply chain functionality being modeled, has the ability to handle large complex problems, and offers highly reusable model components, offering at the same time ease of use by non-experts in simulation.

Using Simulation Modeling for IT Cost Analysis


In the old days, the price for IT services was formed in a pretty standardized way. Network services had an explicit usage price per Kbit/ sec. The range of provided IT services have been growing very fast and have reached new dimensions of complexity. From infrastructure pricing to web-enabled application availability and performance nowadays the old rules for defining service pricing is not applicable any more. Today it is difficult or sometime even impossible to associate the provided service levels with the cost related to the processes of operation, maintenance and the capital cost behind it. The old measures of dollars per Kbit/sec cannot be the right measure any more.

A Modern Simulation Approach for Pharmaceutical Portfolio Management


By creating an integrated simulation environment that models the underlying structure of a pharmaceutical enterprise portfolio it becomes possible to identify the optimal longitudinal allocation of finite resources across the constellation of available investment opportunities. The implementation of a hybrid approach that integrates multiple modeling techniques and analytic disciplines allows for a comprehensive environment that captures the underlying dynamics that drive observed market behavior. The implementation of an object oriented model structure constrains the models complexity by supporting dynamic re-use of both structure and logic.

Agent Modeling of Hispanic Population Acculturation and Behavior


In recent US Census data widely reported in the press “Hispanics” have become the largest minority group in the US. Using simulation modeling technology we look at some of the structural forces that shape the characteristics of the Hispanic population. The model creates a simulated Hispanic population whose level of acculturation to the broader population of which it is a part dynamically varies according to individual choice. The modeling technique used draws on both System Dynamic and Agent based paradigms both supported by innovative AnyLogic software. The representative Hispanic population is disaggregated down to the individual level as individual agents. Each agent makes choices stochastically as modulated by its current state and the outside environment that it is in.

Geographically-Enhanced Mathematical Models of HIV Dynamics


Mathematical modeling is a relatively new but fast developing area of HIV studies providing researchers with an additional dynamical dimension in epidemiological work that allows scientists to simulate the consequences of various intervention and prevention scenarios. We illustrate these concepts by presenting a model that describes Injecting Drug Users (IDU) networks, injecting behavior and HIV/HCV spread within the networks. This individual-based (also called agent-based) model is used to investigate the impact of the introduction of Integralcannula syringes (ICS) instead of commonly used Detachable Needle syringes (DNS). Laboratory experiments have shown that ICS retain approximately 1000 times less residual blood (<.001 ml vs. 1ml) following injection and rinsing than DNS thereby decreasing risk of HIV/NCV transmission by nearly 100 times after 2 rinses.