Pedestrian Traffic Flows

Subway entrance hall modelPedestrian traffic simulation is an important, sometimes required, stage for certain construction projects such as shopping centers, airports, railway stations, or stadiums. It can also be an important part of an expansion or redesign of a facility such as these. Simulating pedestrian traffic becomes most important in areas of high congestion such as the many chokepoints common to populous cities. These analyses can be used by architects in the design stage, by facilities owners contemplating changes, by city planners to evaluate rush hours, or even by civil authorities to simulate evacuations or other emergencies. Because of the complex, chaotic nature of pedestrian flow, simple analyses fall far short of re-creating actual results and a full-blown simulation is required.

AnyLogic's pedestrian modeling library is one of its key strengths. It is drag-and-drop simple for users to create complex analyses using the coded behavior of our pedestrian objects. These objects (agents) follow basic rules that have been determined by detailed theoretical studies; they move at predetermined rates, they know not to occupy the same physical space as walls or other agents, and they adjust their distance and speed based on the congestion of the crowds around them. All this is done automatically without additional programming. Our results have been proven many times in field studies and customer applications. The Designer simply creates sources and destinations and the pedestrians will find their own way highlighting paths and areas of congestions that may not have been apparent when examining the layout. The designer can create metrics such as total travel time between specified points and vary the experiments to highlight these metrics during times of peak congestion. Background layouts and floor plans or maps can be easily imported and 3-D views are supported allowing the developer to create simulations with multiple views and camera angles that will make pedestrian flow analysis clear to anyone.

In the area of pedestrian traffic modeling, our consulting partners offer the following basic services:

  • Time and throughput calculation. Assume you are designing a supermarket, subway/railway station, or airport building. The main task is to create a layout to minimize travel time and ensure that pedestrian flows do not interfere with each other. Simulations can easily test for normal, special, or peak volume conditions.
  • Pedestrian traffic impact analysis. High-traffic areas such as entertainment parks, museums, sports facilities, etc., need to evaluate the impact of construction changes such as the placement of a new kiosk or advertising panel. The impact on the location of such common things as food vendors, ATMs, turnstiles, or other common elements is a simple experiment to conduct within an AnyLogic simulation. Good planning leads to minimal wait and travel for the pedestrians and overall improved customer experience.
  • Evacuation analysis. During evacuation people behave aggressively, trying to leave the risk zone as quickly as possible. In such extraordinary situations it is very important to analyze and organize pedestrian flows. Special staff is often responsible for evacuation; emergency signs are located to point to emergency exits. Emergency events modeling can help define the optimal evacuation procedure and in the end, save lives.
For different pedestrian flow models please refer to the models gallery.

Case Studies

  • Simulating Bicycle Sharing System with the Help of AnyLogic System Dynamic Modeling
    Sustainable bicycle transportation systems have generated broad expectations and have recently attracted focus in the scope of urban planning by alleviating traffic congestion and reducing noise and air pollution. Such bike sharing systems are easy-to-use and generally promoted by the public administration, operating by advertisement companies, transportation operators and, and public organizations.
  • Using Pedestrian Library to Create a New Look for an Art Gallery
    Fair Dynamics, a Milan based consulting company with a distinct aspect towards simulation modeling, was engaged in developing The Ametria project, a contemporary art exhibition held in the Athens’ Benaki Museum. AnyLogic simulation modeling let engineers see where the artworks could be placed, as well as show how people could move inside the gallery.
  • Passenger Flow Simulation at Frankfurt Airport
    As operating company of several major international airports, the Fraport AG is one of the “Global Players” of the airport industry. With more than 140.000 passengers per day and over 80 aircraft movements per hour, the airport in Frankfurt - an aviation hub of worldwide significance – serves the Fraport AG as home base.
  • AnyLogic Tackles Eiffel Tower Crowds
    The Eiffel Tower operating company (SETE) used AnyLogic software to optimize the flow of tourists at the monument. With its help the engineers increased the number of visitors without redesign, but with people movement control.
  • Crossing the English Channel with AnyLogic
    AREP, the subsidiary of «SNCF Gares & Connexions», developed a simulation model which optimized the utilizing of the Transmanche Terminal of Paris’ Gare du nord. The main goal was to reduce the waiting time upstream and at the points of control of passengers. The model enabled to locate, value and represent the possible dysfunctions in these areas.
  • Choosing the Best Concept for a Passenger Rail Car
    The largest CIS rail car building facility, Tver Carriage Works, needed to choose the best passenger rail car concept for a city train. The plant needed to compare passenger entrance/exit times during peak loads for concepts that had different door amounts and widths, and then choose the best variant. They contracted ITS Consulting to perform this task. The consultants found pedestrian simulation modeling to be the best possible instrument to provide a solution.
  • Passenger Flow Simulation for Railway Stations at Sochi 2014 Olympics
    NIIAS is specialized in railway traffic and infrastructure management. Using AnyLogic NIIAS modeled 5 railway stations for Adler – Alpika Service railway, which is being constructed for Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games.
  • Transfer Hub Passenger Flow Simulation at Moscow Ring Railway
    The launch of passenger trains on Moscow Ring Railway is expected to improve the road traffic situation and congestion on public transportation of the city. Many of the newly built stations will be connected to subway and commuter rails by huge transfer hubs. Passenger flows, at one of the future hubs, were simulated using AnyLogic software by the ITS Consulting Company for JSC Moscow Ring Railway.